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Codifiy the blockchains, by Damien Concé, Doctor in Law

The 1804 Civil Code remains a reference for many lawyers of Romano-Germanic tradition. In the collective imagination, it creates a couple between the advent of the contemporary world and that of a new legal order. Since then, each technical or social evolution has generated its new "Code" supposed to order chaos.

Today, the revolution in "distributed ledger technology" (Blockchain) and the related revolution in "smart contracts" offers a fertile magma of economic and social opportunities.
Thus, among other things, the effects of the Blockchain protocols, by allowing the creation of cryptomones, contribute to the fragmentation of the monetary supply alongside regional (Rollon Normand), national (Swiss Franc) and supranational (Euro) currencies.....................




Smart cities, Blockchain & Digital Economy, by Damien Concé, Doctor in Law

Modern urban planning faces problems that are also opportunities for development: traffic congestion that triggers new mobility, sensors that make the detail of urban activities visible, intelligible and usable, or the development of e-administrations.

Among the immediate foreseeable futures, is a future in which the city becomes sustainable, respects "human digital rights" and creates a new digital metropolitan economy.

In this future, the Digital Metropolis will produce a continuous flow of data through the interactions of its users, captured by urban installations and fed by IoT. ....................




The 21st century will be decentralized or will not be ! for the recgnistion of a Legal Person as in Independent and Decentralized Entity, by Damien Concé, Doctor in Law

ICOs are an agile response to the financing needs of innovative projects. It is also the way for project leaders not to be diluted and for investors to have a liquid private equity investment. If this answer is relevant for civil start-ups, it could be even more so for dual start-ups, strategic projects, or even for collaborations between defence manufacturers.

In a pastiche of André Malraux, one could say that "the 21st century will be decentralized or will not be! "Indeed, the decentralization brought about by the digital revolution is beginning to disrupt the economic sphere (crypto-currencies), and the constraints it exerts on traditional organizations are becoming apparent...................




Disruptive technology and thoughts, by Neermal Poonie, ACIS (UK), MBA (UK), BSC (Hons), STEP and Blockchain Enthusiast from Rosemont Management Mauritius

Fiat currencies (in old days pegged against gold) are, it would seem, at the verge of extinction (just like the dodo from my island) or if not, are about to witness reduced dependency.  Discussion and/or consultation are meant to happen “over time” (definition of over time yet to be known though) for the Fiat’s lesser importance in our daily lives subject to projects like Libra taking birth. 
Libra, “tantôt” on and “tantôt” off1  can be considered as the new dictatorship by some and as the new solution to a rigid system by others....................




From Traditional to Smart City, by Neermal Poonie, ACIS (UK), MBA (UK), BSC (Hons), STEP and Blockchain Enthusiast from Rosemont Management Mauritius

Let’s define a city first. It may be defined as a large human network generally more important than a town or village.

A Smart City shares the same definition with the difference of being interconnected with the latest technologies (5G/IoT) and planned using modern urban techniques (algorithm setting patterns) whilst preserving a sustainable environment for the long term benefit of its people/the community. Interestingly though different countries tend to have different definitions of the term Smart City. Smart cities are defined by the OECD as initiatives or approaches that effectively leverage digitalization to boost citizen well-being and deliver more efficient, sustainable and inclusive urban services and environments as part of a collaborative, multi-stakeholder process.In other cases, smart cities have been defined as initiatives or approaches that use digital innovation (including digital-enabled innovation) to improve competitiveness in a community and efficiency of urban services.............




French VAT treatment of the issue of the tokens during an ICO, by Naira Ayvazyan, Legal Team


The question of the VAT liabilities of an ICO has been explored in France through the “rescrit” of 7 August 2019.
VAT is the most efficient tax system. It is defined as “a tax applied on the value added to goods and services at each stage in the production and distribution chain”. It applies to all goods and services that are bought and sold for use or consumption.

So, in an ICO or any sale of digital assets, would VAT normal rules apply?
There are basic conditions used in defining the scope of VAT that may be used to answer the question. It will be applied on any transaction if the main following conditions are satisfied................





The dawn of legitimate crypto-finance, by Damien Concé, Doctor in Law

The development of the digital economy has sometimes become a commonplace in public policy. And often, beyond speeches and "magic thinking", the actions of States are often limited to the digitisation of existing services; the creation of applications facilitating the access and the use of traditional services; the interconnection of public networks and the centralisation of "Data". It is more a question of "scanning" the old world than adopting the revolution under way and enabling the creation of new wealth.

Likewise, few people are aware of the shock wave created by distributed register technology (DLT) and how it is already changing the world around us.

Public institutions, too, are struggling to come to terms with the past. And the feelings of the financial and political community towards crypto-finance have followed the Kübler-Ross model...................